A 4-year-old male presents to the Emergency Department (ED) with a 3-day history of diarrhoea. The illness began with 24-hours of vomiting, subsiding as the diarrhoea became apparent. He had been running a low-grade fever (temperature 37.8C) accompanied by episodes of lethargy. His parents are concerned that his fluid intake is decreasing and although the number of episodes of diarrhoea appears to be reducing, they are not sure of the last time he passed urine.
A full history and careful clinical examination were undertaken following which the diagnosis of gastroenteritis with mild dehydration has been made. (more…)